Table of Contents

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If your PC displays an error code identifying a probable elliptical fault, check out these troubleshooting suggestions. g.This article uses the Elliptical Error Probability (EEP) to determine a constant range of probability that a set of data points may fall. Ellipticity in a two-dimensional (multivariate) distribution occurs when the variance is added along the coordinate axes.

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In military ballistics science, circular errors (CEP) ^{ [1] } (alsoThe probability of a circular error ^{ [2] } or a circle with a probability of ^{ [3] }) is a measure of accuracy for a brand new weapon accuracy system. It is defined in the same way as the radius of a circle centered in its middle, the circumference of which must include the landing points at 50% positive in the circumference; In other words, these are all from our average error radius. ^{ [4] } ^{ [5] } That is, the design of the ammunition, if possible given, has a CEP of 100 m, when it becomes 100 by aiming at the same point, 50 fall on their midpoint of impact in a beautiful circle with a radius of 100 m (the distance between the target point and the intersection that the impact point has is called offset).

After all, there are related concepts like DRMS (mean root of distance squared). The root of the mean error is a long square and R95, which is the radius of the circle that 95% of the treasure will fall on.

The CEP concept may even play a role in measuring the accuracy of a location obtained with a GPS system such as GPS, or with older modern advances such as LORAN as and Loran-C.

## Concept

The original CEP style was based on the circular bivariate normal distribution with (cbn) CEP, on the fact that the CBN parameter is only the ¼ and parameters of a typical normal distribution. Ammunition with this distribution pattern tends to cluster around a central target point, with most being fairly close, slower and less distant, and very few far away. If the CEP is n meters, 50% of hits are offered within n meters of an average hit, 43.7% is between 2n and 6.1% is between 2n and 3n meters, and any proportion of hits that fall further from what tripled The CEP of the recommendation is only 0.2%.

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CEP is not a great measure of accuracy if this distribution is not normally followed. Precision-guided ammunition usually has a lot more “shots at close range” and therefore, of course, does not propagate normally. Ammunition can also have a standard deviation of range errors that is greater than the widespread deviation of azimuth errors (offloning) ending with an elliptical confidence range. Ammunition can be inaccurately aimed at the target, which is often the case when the average vector is not slightly larger (0.0). This is called bias.

To incorporate precision into the CEP concept using these conditions, CEP can be defined as the square root of the mean squared error (MSE). MSE is the new sum of the variance of the distance error plus the variance most commonly associated with azimuth error, plus the covariance of the total distance error with the azimuth error, plus a specified squared offset. Thus, MSE is the result of a synthesis of all these error sources, which geometrically correspond to the radius of the circle a, inside which 50% of the cartridges can land.

Several methods have been introduced to cite CEP from survey data. Some of these methods include Blischke and Halpin’s plug-in approach (1966), Spall and Mariak’s Bayesian method (1992), and Winkler and Bickert’s maximum likelihood method (2012). Spall and Mariak’s approach is that the shot data is a combination of differences.Different properties of the projectile (for example, shots, possibly from many types of ammunition or from several places aimed at the target).

## Conversion

Although 50% is the most common definition of CEP, the size of the circle is specified as a percentage. Percentiles are determined by recognizing that the external position error is determined by the second vector, the components of which are two orthogonal Gaussian random variables (one for each axis) that are not correlated and each has a standard difference . The distance error is my size of this vector; A great feature of 2D Gauss is that vectors follow the magnitude of the Rayleigh distribution with the best standard deviation , root cause root mean square (DRMS). The Rayleigh distribution’s real estate properties are such that this percentile is at Alt = ” displaystyle is denoted by the observation formula:

entry and are listed in the following table with the most important The values for DRMS are also 2DRMS (double square root), undoubtedly specific to the Rayleigh distribution and always occur numerically, while the values for CEP, R95 ( radius 95%) and R99.7 (radius 99.7%) are usually set based on the 68-95-99 rule.

Next, we’ll be sure to get the conversion to table transform values that are expressed at one percentile level relative to the other. ^{ [6] } ^{ [7] } This is the transformation of the table, the coefficients of the transferThey go to to , provided by:

For example GPS, good reliable receiver with 1.25m DRMS gain, 1.73 corresponds to a radius of 2.16 m 95%.

Disclaimer: Gauges, datasheets, or other publications often give “RMS” values for which experts usually, but not always, ^{ [8] } have “DRMS” values. Also notice the patterns that come from the normal one-dimensional distribution, for example, rule 68-95-99.7 when you try to say “R95 means 2DRMS.” As noted above, these properties simply do not reflect distance errors. Finally, remember that these shares are purchased for deemed distribution; although they usually appear to be correct for real data, they can be caused by other effects that the element does not representno.

## See Also

- Probable error

## Links

## Further Reading

## External Links

- There is probably a bug in Ballistipedia.

- ^ Circular Error Probable (CEP), Air Force Evaluation and Operational Test Center White Paper 6, Version 2, 1988, July, p. 1
- ^ Nelson, William (1988). “Use in the context of circular errors in detecting probable targets” (PDF). Bedford, Massachusetts: MITER Corporation; United States Air Force.
- ^ Ehrlich, Robert (1985) Building a Nuclear World: Nuclear Weapons Technology and Policy. Albany, NY: State University of New York. S. 63.
- ^ Circular Error Probable (CEP), Air Force Operational AND see Evaluation Center White Paper 6, ver. several, July 1987, p. 1
- ^ Payne, Craig, e. etc. (2006). Principles of Naval Weapon Systems. Annapolis, MD: Maritime Press Institute. p. 342 .
- ^ Frank van Diggelen, “GPS Accuracy: Lies, Lies, Truth and Statistics,” GPS World, vol. 9 n ° 1, January 1998
- ^ Frank van Diggelen, “GNSS is an exact lie, a lie and statistics ”, GPS World, Volume 18, No. 1 January 2007. Continuation of the previous article with the same title [1] [2]
- ^ For example, the International Hydrographic Organization states in the IHO Standard for Hydrographic Surveys S-44 (Fifth Edition): “The 95% confidence level for 2D blocks (eg position) meets the definition of 2.45x widened deviation.” which is only true if our group is talking about a standard version, a base 1D variable defined as above.

- Blishke, V.R .; Halpin, A.Kh. (1966). “Asymptotic properties of some estimates of the circular quantile error.” Journal of the American Statistical Association. 61 (315): 618-632. DOI: 10.180 / 01621459.1966.10480893. JSTOR 2282775.
- Mackenzie, Donald A. (1990). Inventing precision: the core of historical missile guidance sociology. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-13258-9 .
- Grubbs, F.E. (1964). “Accurate Statistical Measurements to Support Shooters and Rocket Engineers.” Ann ML: Arbor, Edwards brothers. Scoreistika pdf
- Spall, James C .; Maryak, John L. (1992). “Possible Bayesian estimate tied to the accuracy of Forquantile projectiles based on non-iid data.” Journal of the American Statistical Association. eighty seven (419): 676-681. DOI: 10.180 / 01621459.1992.10475269. JSTOR 2290205.
- Daniel Wollschläger (2014), “Analyzing the Shape, Precision, and Accuracy of Shooting Search Results with ShotGroups.” ShotGroups Reference Guide
- Winkler, for W. and Bickert, B. (2012). Excerpt from “Evaluating All Circular Error Probabilities for Doppler Beam Enhanced Radar Mode” in EUSAR. 9th European Synthetic Aperture Radar Conference, pp. 368-71, 23./26. April 2012 ieeexplore.ieee.org

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## How do you calculate probable circular error?

Find the largest average of all numbers squared by adding all the numbers and dividing the number of numbers quoted. Find the quadratic route of the norm of all numbers to find the overall circular error of the probability.

## What is CEP in bombing?

In military ballistic science, Over Error Probable (CEP) (also circular error probability or circle of equal probability) is a suitable measure for assessing the accuracy of a weapon system.

## What is cep50?

Circular Error Probability Otherwise, CEP is defined as the radius in a circle centered on True Pleasure that contains 50% of the actual GPS reading. Thus, a receiver with a CEP 1 gauge measurement accuracy is at a distance of one multimeter from the true reading, I would say, in 50% of cases.